Better D3 sites with react

11 minute read


I’m not a React nor a D3 expert. I’m too much of a generalist these days to consider myself an expert in anything really! I am happy to be told how to correct or improve any of these examples, and of course don’t just copy me - take what is useful from my stuff, and build your own, better things!

Also note I built my sample code using create-react-app - and I haven’t cleaned out all the files that creates, so there might be some junk hanging around.

TL;DR: my sample code is at

The ancient past - tinkering

I’ve been playing with D3 for quite a while now - I tinkered with D3 on a clojure server in 2013 and in 2018 I shared an approach that mostly worked for me - using modern JavaScript and CSS, ditching JQuery or other frameworks, and going serverless, because in most cases having a purely static site worked for me, and made it much easier to host and share visualisations.

However it was always painful to build the non-SVG parts of my visualisations. Forms, inputs, sliders, and the like, are a hassle to build yourself once you get any complexity at all.

What I needed was to integrate with a more modern JavaScript framework - in 2019 I finally found time to learn some React, and I decided it’d be good to combine the two.

The recent past - adding React

Unfortunately, it’s not that straightforward to do so. Basically React likes to control the DOM - tracking state changes, diffing a virtual DOM with the real DOM, and the like. D3 also likes to control the DOM - and you need to work out how to stop them fighting.

There are several approaches that can be used here - there’s a nice overview in “Bringing Together React, D3, And Their Ecosystem” by Marcos Iglesias - basically there’s a spectrum from letting React and D3 largely own their own parts of the DOM, through to letting React look after all the DOM and just using D3 to do D3 special bits. I was more keen on letting them be largely isolated - D3 is very good at what it does, and the less react-y it is, the more you can reuse some of the millions of great D3 examples that are out there.

I also found this great article: “React + D3 - the Macaroni and Cheese of the Data Visualization World” by Leigh Steiner which was extremely helpful, and the basis of most of my approach.

However, it didn’t go into all that much detail - and also, despite mentioning the newer React functional style and hooks, most of it was based on old componentDidUpdate logic. And state handling seemed tricky.

Also, another big thing for me, is it didn’t explain how to work with the D3 join model (D3 examples often don’t, sadly). The idea is, done properly, D3 rendering can detect changed in a diagram’s underlying data, and cleanly handle adding new elements, updating changed elements, and deleting removed elements - with transitions if you want. D3 recently added a cool join function which makes this even easier.

So I started tinkering with making this work my way…

The present - React + D3 with hooks

My current approach is at - to be precise, this article is based on code at this commit in case the repo has moved on by the time you read this.

The D3 parts

D3 only exists in the Viz.js file - everything else is React. The Viz component creates a single svg element:

    <aside className="Viz">
      <svg className="chart" ref={d3Container} />

That ref={d3Container} means React creates a reference to this DOM element for manipulation by the Viz component - see Refs and the DOM in the react docs for more.

The heart of the Viz component uses useEffect() as mentioned in the Macaroni and Cheese article, to trigger changes to the D3 component as a side-effect - if and only if the data being referenced has changed. The core of the Viz update logic is this code:

const Viz = (props) => {
  const d3Container = useRef(null);
  const { dataRef, state, dispatch } = props;

  const prevState = usePrevious(state);

  useEffect(() => {
      // d3 update logic hidden
  }, [dataRef, state, dispatch, prevState]);
    return (
    <aside className="Viz">
      <svg className="chart" ref={d3Container} />

UseEffect takes four properties - and will only be called if any of these has changed:

  • dataRef is another ref - in this case to the raw data to be visualised. More on that later. As it’s a reference (think pointer) it doesn’t actually change, it’s included here to avoid React complaining
  • state is where I put all the visualisation state - what to show, what colours to use, interactions etc. Generally it’s the only thing that might change
  • dispatch is a global dispatch function that D3 can use to make changes to the state - more on that later. Again, it shouldn’t change, so it’s just here to keep d3 happy.
  • prevState is the previous state - this is a trick I got from this Stack Overflow question - it stores the value of state from last time Viz was shown, allowing me to detect what has really changed.

Initial setup, cheap changes, and expensive changes

One thing I wanted to handle was to separate out different kinds of visualisation updates. For simple things this is complete overkill - but I often find that my UI changes fall into two categories:

  • Cheap changes that really just need to update some colours or highlights, really quickly
  • Expensive changes that need more serious processing, possibly with some delay

For example, dragging a colour slider to change colours might be so cheap you want it to happen on every mouse drag. But changing a date selector might mean re-processing the underlying data for some reason, and that might be slow.

There are also the things you do once and only once - adding svg groups, for example.

So the code looks at the state, and the previousState, and works out what has changed:

    if (prevState === undefined) {
    } else if (!_.isEqual(prevState.expensiveConfig,
                          state.expensiveConfig)) {
    } else if (!_.isEqual(prevState.config,
                          state.config)) {
    } else {
        // nothing to do

I’m using lodash to do object comparison - state can be deeply nested, and JavaScript doesn’t have a reliable way to do deep object comparison.

I won’t go much into the initialize, draw and redraw functions at this stage - they are relatively straightforward. I don’t even actually use the cheap/expensive code in the demo - draw just calls redraw.

The only interesting thing to note is how to interact with the world outside D3 - using the dispatch function:

  .on("click", (node, i, nodeList) => {
    dispatch({ type: "selectData", payload: });

How this works will be covered later.

Loading the data

The data for my demo is in a JSON file - you could just import it, but that’d load it synchronously - fine for small amounts of data, but for larger datasets I want to be able to warn the user that data is loading.

So instead of the default App component, I have a Loader, which again uses useEffect to load the initial data as a side-effect of rendering:

const Loader = () => {
  const url = `${process.env.PUBLIC_URL}/data.json`;

  const dataRef = useRef(null);

  const data = useFetch(url);
  dataRef.current = data;

  return data == null ? <div>Loading...</div> : <App dataRef={dataRef} />;

useFetch is a function that makes a fetch call (the modern alternative to XMLHttpRequest) to get the raw JSON data, and apply any needed postprocessing.

This again uses useEffect - see the react docs on this for more background. Effectively, the first time the Loader component is rendered, it will call useFetch which actually returns have no data so will show <div>Loading...</div> - and kick off useFetch which returns a null response.

useFetch looks like this:

const useFetch = (url) => {
  const [data, setData] = useState(null);

  useEffect(() => {
    async function fetchData() {
      const response = await fetch(url);
      const json = await response.json();
      // postprocessing removed for clarity
      setData(/* stuff */);
  }, [url]);

  return data;

In this code, useEffect takes a parameter [url] - this means it will only be run if the URL has changed (which should never happen in this example) so it runs once. When it has fetched the data, it calls setData which sets the data state - which triggers a re-render of the Loader (see the react docs for useState).

The second time Loader is rendered, the call to useFetch effectively does nothing, as the value of [url] has not changed. (If it changed it could get into a loop, which would be bad). But it will return the updated data value, which I put into yet another ref: dataRef and pass to the App:

<App dataRef={dataRef} />

I’m using a ref here so the App doesn’t need to check the whole data object to see if it should be re-rendered. (This may be unnecessary - I’m not clear enough about react internals to be sure what would happen if I just passed data around - it may have no real overhead?)

Showing the App

App is fairly straightforward, with a bit of magic to set up the state and dispatch mechanisms:

const App = props => {
  const { dataRef } = props;

  const [vizState, dispatch] = useReducer(

  return (
    <div className="App">
      <header className="App-header">
        <h1>Korny&apos;s D3 React Demo</h1>
      <Viz dataRef={dataRef} state={vizState} dispatch={dispatch} />
      <Controller dataRef={dataRef} state={vizState} dispatch={dispatch} />
      <Inspector dataRef={dataRef} state={vizState} dispatch={dispatch} />

The UI is basically three components, Viz which is the D3 visualisation, Controller for the user controls on the left panel, Inspector to inspect a particular data point. They all take the same parameters - dataRef for the raw data, state for the current state, and dispatch for updating the state.

State and Dispatching

State management is done through useReducer - see the react docs for more. Basically it takes three parameters:

  • the reducer function, globalDispatchReducer
  • the initial data, dataRef
  • an initialising function initialiseGlobalState - this allows for lazy calculation of the initial state.

The initialise function creates the initial state object - it has a shape roughly like this:

    config: {
        // cheap state
    expensiveConfig: {
        // expensive state
    constants: {
        // state that never changes

As discussed earlier, I split the state into cheap and expensive, and rendering is different depending on what changes. There is also a constants section - this doesn’t really need to be in the state, but it’s useful, especially as sometimes something starts off as constant (like margins, in this example) but later might become modifiable, at which time you can move it somewhere else in the state.

The globalDispatchReducer is what gets called whenever anything calls dispatch() - earlier there was an example of an onClick handler which called dispatch({ type: "selectData", payload: }) - the Controller also calls dispatch whenever a user clicks a control.

globalDispatchReducer is basically a large switch statement:

function globalDispatchReducer(state, action) {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "selectData": {
      const result = _.cloneDeep(state);
      result.config.selected = action.payload;
      return result;
    // rest removed for clarity

It takes the current state and an action - which is { type: "selectData", payload: } in the example above. Whatever it returns is set as the new state, which will trigger re-rendering of any affected react components.

I’m using lodash to clone the state here - alternatively you can just use es6 destructuring assignment, such as:

      return {
        config: { ...config, selected: action.payload }

However this gets hairy for deeply nested structures, as the returned object is not a deep clone of the original object - in the above example, state.expensiveConfig.dateRange would be a shared reference between the original state and the new state, rather than an actual new object. That might be OK, but it can be quite counterintuitive - it’s caught me out before, so I like to use cloneDeep and be explicit. (It’d be nice to rework this with immutable.js but that’s a rabbit hole I don’t have time for now)

The overall event flow

The above might be a bit confusing - in a nutshell, I pass a dispatch function to every component, including d3 renderers.

When something calls dispatch:

  1. globalDispatchReducer is called, returning a new state
  2. React updates the vizState state owned by the App component, so re-renders App
  3. App in turn re-renders everything else.
  4. Normal components are updated in standard React fashion, using virtual DOM magic so not too much gets re-rendered
  5. the Viz component looks at the updated state and redraws whichever bits of the D3 visualisation need to be redrawn.

All of this is surprisingly smooth - I’ve had pages with thousands of svg nodes which updated nicely as I drag a control slider. I initially thought I’d need to find ways to bypass react for some UI updates, but so far I haven’t.

The future

I’m using this for my polyglot code tools - I intend to write more about those when I have the time.

I’d really value feedback on this post - especially as I’m not a react expert, and there are probably major things I’ve missed! Feedback via Disqus below, or via @kornys on Twitter.

Update Mar 2022

I have tweaked the repo a bit - using Typescript now, and updated versions of React, D3, eslint and prettier. Haven’t really had time to update this blog post, but hopefully it’s mostly still relevant.